Making a Thames clay pipe - Will it work?Archeology and dating go hand-in-hand. Historical archeologists have an advantage when it comes to dating because of the written historical record. When we study a site, we also study the documents associated with the site. For Historical archeologists, ceramics are a diagnostic tool for dating because many English ceramic types can be dated to within 5 or so years of their manufacture. Access to this knowledge led to something called the Mean Ceramic Date. Think about the things you own.
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He observed that , (2) the sample must be random, (3) the imported white- clay tobacco-pipe stem sample must be representative of the site, and fragments . There are always exceptions but, in broad terms, stems can usually be allocated to one of three general date ranges by assessing their form, stem bore, fabric. Clay tobacco pipe stem fragments of eighteenth century or later date. No one of thumb, but after the dating of clay were white ball clay tobacco pipes bearing the .
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The Art and Archaeology of Clay Pipes
Skip to content. Home About. Curious about Matches? Why did the diameter of pipe stems decrease over time? Share this: Tweet. Like this: Like Loading About Megan L. Megan graduated from Boston University in with an M. While in graduate school, she wrote her master's thesis on 18th-century glass drinkingware excavated during the Big Dig and interned with NMSC for 2 years. Megan has been a full-time employee since February View all posts by Megan L.
This entry was posted in Spotlight On Bookmark the permalink. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:.Pipe Chat - Pipe Stem Materials
Email required Address never made public. Name required. Search for:. Contact Us Via Email. Blog at WordPress. Post to Cancel. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Pipes were typically sold with either a single coat Common Wash or double coat Best Wash. The single coat was usually applied directly to the pipe but for better qualities the pipe could be scoured sanded first to provide a smooth surface that the varnish would adhere to well.
Occasionally three coats were applied. See also calcined ; meerschaum wash.
Cut Mouthpiece A mouthpiece that has been formed by cutting surplus clay from the end of the stem during the trimming process once the pipe had been removed from the mould and dried a little. A knife was run around the stem against the trimming wire that was inside to support the pipe and ensure that the bore was clear. The knife was usually angled slightly so as to produce a bevelled mouthpiece and there is often a slightly raised ridge around the bore opening itself, formed as the trimming wire was subsequently withdrawn.
This was the standard method for forming the mouthpiece and was used on all pipes, apart from some mid-nineteenth to twentieth century types which had either a rounded or nipple type mouthpiece formed directly in the mould. Cut Rim A pipe bowl where the rim has been formed by a single knife cut during the moulding process to remove surplus clay.
This leaves a flat surface with sharply defined edges and, usually, parallel striations across the rim caused by impurities in the clay or irregularities in the blade being used. This technique first appears in Britain in the late seventeenth century and remained the standard technique for creating rims thereafter.
A slot was incorporated into the mould to allow the clay that had been extruded up during the moulding process to be trimmed off after the stopper had been withdrawn and before the pipe was removed from the mould. This speeded up production and meant that the rims no longer had to be bottered to finish them. Cut rims do not appear to have been employed in France and the Low Countries, where there was no slot in the mould and the rims had to be hand trimmed and bottered after the pipe had been removed from the mould.
This style of pipe became popular from about and was the dominant form during the later nineteenth and twentieth centuries. It typically had a stocky stem and a nipple mouthpiece.
The term may well have been Scottish in origin. The same term is used by smokers for any remnant of tobacco left in the base of the bowl after smoking. This design was first registered in Photograph by D. Unlike the moulding wire, this had a rounded end so that it followed the stem bore that had already been created without forming a second hole.
It also cleared any dottle that had reattached itself to the inside of the bowl when the moulding wire was being withdrawn, thus ensuring a free airway for the finished pipe. In some instances, however, the count could be higher, for example, moulders in a factory were normally expected to produce 16 dozen pipes to the gross to allow for breakages during drying, trimming and firing.
Hair Curler An object used to bind hair around while making it curl. Some pipemakers made these objects as a side line, but many were produced by a small number of specialist manufacturers who marketed their products widely throughout Britain and the colonies with their initials being stamped on each end. This usually has near vertical sides, or ones that flare out towards its base. A heel is usually broader than it is deep, as opposed to a spur q.
These marks were formed by designs cut into the end of the metal stopper that formed the bowl cavity during the moulding process and are not to be confused with scrape marks that may be formed across the base of the bowl interior by the moulding or trimming wires. These marks have not been noted on seventeenth century pipes, which generally had very narrow rather rounded bases to the bowl interior, but occur across Britain from the early eighteenth century onwards.
The most common marks found on the internal base of a bowl are simple crosses. These symbols should be used in any catalogue or report to indicate which type is present. If some other symbol or letter is found it should be described. Occasionally multi-arm stars are found and, very rarely, initials have been observed.
The cut is made at a steep angle so as to create an internal bevel and thin but not totally remove the flat top of the rim. This feature is usually only found on bowls with cut rims and mostly on pipes dating from the eighteenth or early nineteenth centuries, although it is also found on better quality pipes of a later date.
This trimming appears to have been done either to make the rim thickness look more even where the stopper had entered off-centre or to thin the whole top of the rim down to make the bowl look more delicate and refined. It generally has the consistency of a piece of leather of similar thickness, hence the name.
Labelling Pipes. Dating Pipes. Stems. Stem Bores. Bowl Forms . Bowl Form Typologies. Identifying a Maker. Heel Stamps. Stem. The earliest clay pipes known in England and Europe are generally thought to date from c and are Hole sizes in Pipe Stems - A way of dating?. Posts about dating clay pipes written by david neat. earlier and you may even extract a perfectly preserved bowl with a few inches of stem!.
Historically the main source was Turkey. Small numbers of pipes made of this material circulated in the eastern Mediterranean from the seventeenth century onwards, but it was only from the mid-eighteenth century that it was extensively exploited for pipe making, with fine quality workshops establishing themselves in central Europe, particularly around Vienna, during the nineteenth century. Paris was also a notable centre.
Meerschaum pipes were individually hand carved, making them much more expensive then contemporary clays.
They appear to have first been introduced into Britain around See also cream wash; calcined. Photo D.
A band of milling was applied around the rim of most British pipes during the seventeenth century with a revival of the practice on some pipes from the mid-nineteenth century onwards although most later examples have moulded milling.
Milled patterns were also applied to some pipe stems. Pipes from France and the Low Countries tend to have milled rims at all periods. An early seventeenth century Dutch pipe with a band of milling around the bowl rim and milled and stamped decoration on the stem. These almost always comprised two halves, split vertically on the long axis, which shaped the exterior of the pipe. A third part, the stopper q. One very early example of a wooden mould had been found Higgins b but all other known examples are of metal.
Examples from the second quarter of the nineteenth century onwards survive, almost all of which are made of cast iron.
Dating clay pipe stems
Earlier examples may have been made of brass and one or two later examples made of this metal are known, but these are much rarer. Cast-iron pipe mould comprising two halves to produce the bowl shape top and middle and a third part, the stopper bottomto form the bowl cavity Pollock Collection in the National Pipe Archive. These flaws most frequently occur in areas of the mould that were hard to finish smoothly, such as around the base or sides of a heel or spur.
These marks can be used to identify products made in the same mould and are particularly useful where there the bowl is otherwise plain and unmarked. Sometimes this is the result of a broken mould that had been repaired but, more usually, it results from a new plate having been added to the top of the mould where the bowl rim had become dished from repeated trimming.
Moulded marks tend to be slightly less crisp than stamped marks q. They may also exhibit blank or missing elements where the design in the mould has become temporarily clogged with hard clay.
"Pipe stem dating was first developed by archaeologist J.C. Harrington. These were white clay tobacco pipes, also called kaolin clay pipes. This article describes the two major systems for dating clay pipe stem fragments by statistical methods, examines the results and suggests ways of minimizing. The clay pipe industry expanded rapidly as tobacco smoking gained The earliest pipes, dating to about , had stems with 9/inch diameter bores.
This type of milling was only used from the earlier part of the nineteenth century onwards. A hand impressed band of milling around the rim of a mid-seventeenth century bowl top compared with a band of moulded milling around the rim of a football pipe of c bottom.
This is essential when the wire is inserted into the clay since the button forms a slightly larger hole, allowing the wire to pass freely in and out of the clay. Without this button the wire drags against the clay, making it hard to insert, and it can suck the hole closed again as it is removed, since air cannot flow freely around it.
See also trimming wire. This was normally fitted over a specially shaped rounded projection from the bowl but sometimes ordinary one piece clays had their stems broken short to take a mounted mouthpiece. The hole to take the mouthpiece in a mounted pipe was normally smaller than that in a socketed bowl q.
Mounted pipes from a trade catalogue produced by Edward Pollock of Manchester in c Note that the mouthpiece is fitted into a metal ferrule in this type of pipe.